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Vesuvius: A Biography

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Capricious, vibrant, and volatile, Vesuvius has been and remains one of the world's most dangerous volcanoes. In its rage, it has destroyed whole cities and buried thousands alive. In its calm, its ashes have fertilized the soil, providing for the people who have lived in its shadows. For over two millennia, the dynamic presence of this volcano has fascinated scientists, a Capricious, vibrant, and volatile, Vesuvius has been and remains one of the world's most dangerous volcanoes. In its rage, it has destroyed whole cities and buried thousands alive. In its calm, its ashes have fertilized the soil, providing for the people who have lived in its shadows. For over two millennia, the dynamic presence of this volcano has fascinated scientists, artists, writers, and thinkers, and inspired religious fervor, Roman architecture, and Western literature. In Vesuvius, Alwyn Scarth draws from the latest research, classical and eyewitness accounts, and a diverse range of other sources to tell the riveting story of this spectacular natural phenomenon. Scarth follows Vesuvius across time, examining the volcano's destruction of Pompeii and Herculaneum in 79 A.D., its eruptions during the Counter-Reformation that were viewed as God's punishment of sinners, and the building of the world's first volcano observatory on Vesuvius in the 1840s. Scarth explores the volcano's current position overlooking a population of more than three million people and the complex attitudes maintained by the residents, at once reverent, protective, and fearful. He also considers the next major eruption of Vesuvius, which experts have indicated could be the most powerful since 1631. The longer Vesuvius remains dormant, the more violent its reawakening will be, and despite scientific advances for predicting when this might occur, more people are vulnerable than ever before. Exploring this celebrated wonder from scientific, historical, and cultural perspectives, Vesuvius provides a colorful portrait of a formidable force of nature.


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Capricious, vibrant, and volatile, Vesuvius has been and remains one of the world's most dangerous volcanoes. In its rage, it has destroyed whole cities and buried thousands alive. In its calm, its ashes have fertilized the soil, providing for the people who have lived in its shadows. For over two millennia, the dynamic presence of this volcano has fascinated scientists, a Capricious, vibrant, and volatile, Vesuvius has been and remains one of the world's most dangerous volcanoes. In its rage, it has destroyed whole cities and buried thousands alive. In its calm, its ashes have fertilized the soil, providing for the people who have lived in its shadows. For over two millennia, the dynamic presence of this volcano has fascinated scientists, artists, writers, and thinkers, and inspired religious fervor, Roman architecture, and Western literature. In Vesuvius, Alwyn Scarth draws from the latest research, classical and eyewitness accounts, and a diverse range of other sources to tell the riveting story of this spectacular natural phenomenon. Scarth follows Vesuvius across time, examining the volcano's destruction of Pompeii and Herculaneum in 79 A.D., its eruptions during the Counter-Reformation that were viewed as God's punishment of sinners, and the building of the world's first volcano observatory on Vesuvius in the 1840s. Scarth explores the volcano's current position overlooking a population of more than three million people and the complex attitudes maintained by the residents, at once reverent, protective, and fearful. He also considers the next major eruption of Vesuvius, which experts have indicated could be the most powerful since 1631. The longer Vesuvius remains dormant, the more violent its reawakening will be, and despite scientific advances for predicting when this might occur, more people are vulnerable than ever before. Exploring this celebrated wonder from scientific, historical, and cultural perspectives, Vesuvius provides a colorful portrait of a formidable force of nature.

30 review for Vesuvius: A Biography

  1. 5 out of 5

    Ozymandias

    A biography of a mountain? What an odd concept. The author claims that this book is the first to attempt this task, and as I’m no geologist I can’t dispute that. All I can say is that it was unique and engaging for me. So what kind of “biography” can you write about a shifting mound of rock and magma? Are we going to learn about Vesuvius’ inner life? Well yes, actually. There’s a lot of material in here about the goings-on of the magma lurking under the mountain. To outward appearances a big hunk A biography of a mountain? What an odd concept. The author claims that this book is the first to attempt this task, and as I’m no geologist I can’t dispute that. All I can say is that it was unique and engaging for me. So what kind of “biography” can you write about a shifting mound of rock and magma? Are we going to learn about Vesuvius’ inner life? Well yes, actually. There’s a lot of material in here about the goings-on of the magma lurking under the mountain. To outward appearances a big hunk of rock, Vesuvius is actually just the mouth for a giant subterranean belly that occasionally spews magma upwards towards the summit. And we can track that as it does it by using seismometers. How about its childhood? Sorta. We learn about the mountain’s family of volcanoes around the Bay of Naples. Vesuvius was originally one of a pair of volcanoes, its sinling being what is now the Campi Flegrei. That peak was the larger one but it destroyed itself millennia ago, although many offspring have risen in the meantime. As far as character sketches go we get some pretty good depictions of Vesuvius’s changing shape. The mountain is always reinventing itself. Did you know that the mountain we call Vesuvius was actually born in the middle ages? In Classical times the mountain was only the section we know as Mount Somma, which is in fact the edge of a larger caldera “Vesuvius” is growing out of. The top of the mountain was a giant caldera with a little chip in it, completely unlike the vision of a pretty conical stratovolcano we associate it with. Makes Spartacus’ hiding in the caldera and climbing down the vines to ambush Roman pursuers a lot more intelligible. And personality.... Oh boy, does Vesuvius have personality! The mountain, probably the most studied in the world, has clear patterns of behavior. It tends to alternate between two phases. Either it lets out a continuous pattern of eruptions, with heavy lava flows and ash clouds (as it did between 1631 and 1944), or it holds in all its energy and releases it in a giant blast (farewell, Pompeii!). We’ve gone eighty years without a single eruption. The days of regular but minor volcanic activity is done. By my completely amateur calculations, based on the mountain’s earlier behavior, we should be due for about 300 years of peace (possibly accompanied by eruptions in the Campi Flegrei) followed by a massive eruption like nothing Naples has seen in 500 years. To my surprise, Scarth says the expected date of the eruption is discomfortingly sooner: perhaps 30-40 years. His failure to explain the rationale behind that estimate is one of the book’s more important omissions. The early years of the volcano are well told, breathing life into what could easily become a dry, technical discussion. The volcano (or rather volcanoes) are described much as if they are people with personalities and other characteristics. The interesting chapter for me was the third one, on the Avellino eruption. In 2001 they found a Bronze Age village intact from an eruption in c. 1780 BC. This eruption was slightly unusual in that the wind was blowing northeast and thus the remains were found when they were building a supermarket in Nola. We’ve got a couple of dead bodies and, more dramatically, a set of footprints in newly fallen ash! But Pompeii isn’t alone for offering a remarkably preserved-ancient settlement. Of course the AD 79 eruption that took out Pompeii gets the longest chapter. We start off with a potted description of the Empire that is, frankly, of mixed value. It’s rather snooty and judgmental and makes some basic errors such as describing the fleet as manned by galley slaves (an issue of vital importance when considering Pliny the Elder’s naval expedition during the eruption). His archaeological understanding is much better as it outlines the state of the region under the early empire. In general, despite its faults, I found this section to be an excellent addition to the normal works on Pompeii which are generally written by Classicists and focus on the ancient city. Indeed, he seems rather peeved at how geological strata are tossed away without study to get to the remains underneath. The description of the eruption itself is fascinating. I’d never really questioned the notion that relatively few people from Pompeii actually died, but his argument that many of the refugees would have succumbed to the ash cloud is strong (the wind blew most of the ash directly towards Pompeii and beyond along the most likely escape route). That said, his triumphant observation that none of our sources identify any survivors from Pompeii is rather undermined by the fact that none of them mention the names of any Pompeiians from any point in history. Ancient sources just aren’t good enough to make any arguments of omission. The one disappointing feature is that I feel further explanation was needed to explain why he reconstructed the eruption schedule the way he did. How do we know when the volcano erupted and when the pyroclastic flows took place? It doesn’t come from Pliny, at least not all of it and not with the precision we see here. How do we know that Herculaneum was wiped out by a pyroclastic flow at 1 AM on August 25? Or that it reached a temperature of 400° C and travelled at 250-400 kph? And the pyroclastic flows that struck Pompeii at 6:30, 7:30, and 8 AM? This is an introductory text so it doesn’t have to detail the rationale behind each conclusion, but it would be nice to know the sort of reasoning that went into this and how accurate it can be considered. While the AD 79 eruption naturally gets pride of place, the book doesn’t stop there. We get a detailed history of its eruptions for the following two millennia. The detailed picking apart of Medieval sources is interesting. There was a major eruption in there known from the geological remains, but we can’t say which year it was in. This section was a little unpleasant. Scarth is rather scathing of medieval (and Christian) society and frequently mocks them for relying on the head of St. Gennaro to protect them from the mountain. Things pick up a bit in the Early Modern Era. The volcano was quiescent from 1139-1631, at which point it let off its second most powerful eruption in recorded history. This eruption sounds like the little brother of the one in AD 79. It had the same Plinian column (although winds blew the ash in a less-deadly eastern direction) but there were fewer pyroclastic flows as they seem to have been caused by the collapse of the lava dome. Still, it cost at least 2,000 lives, as many lives as we can prove the prequel did. It also terrified the locals and we get much better accounts of the eruption. While none are as “scientific” as Pliny’s, they allow the eruption to be charted in detail and show how the government and populace reacted to the event. The remainder of the book documents minor eruptions that we can now follow in great detail. I knew Vesuvius had erupted during the Allied invasion of WW2 but I hadn’t realized quite how active Vesuvius had been before that. 1944 marked the culmination of three centuries of regular eruptions, never more than a decade apart, which resulted in the appearance of the volcano we know today. Apparently, that made Vesuvius a key site for volcanic tourism and something of a must-see for people undertaking the Grand Tour. I have a hard time believing how foolhardy some of these people were. Going into the crater during an active eruption (even just one of lava flows) is insane. No respect for the power of Mother Nature. And yet the mountain generally went easy on them. Fewer than 300 were killed over 300 years of eruptions. But what makes this section really fascinating is watching the birth of modern volcanology. William Hamilton, the British consul to Naples, became the first volcanologist and his detailed observations of Vesuvius were gobbled up by excited new Earth Scientists back in England. Hamilton didn’t attempt to slot these eruptions into any sort of classification (he felt it beyond him) but he did correct a number of misconceptions that show just how little we knew about the world in the eighteenth century. For example, people didn’t know that there was such thing as a volcano. They believed that volcanic eruptions could be emitted from any mountain. Fire would push the earth up like a pimple until eventually it burst from the summit. Hamilton demonstrated that volcanoes were actually built by ash and material expelled from the volcano and that furthermore volcanoes could be distinguished from other mountains by their conical shapes. He was even able to make a rough dating of the volcanoes in the Campi Flegrei that showed, to people’s evident discomfort, that they must date back more than the 4,000 years calculated from the Bible. Yikes! The sections on the future of Vesuvius are really depressing. It is evident that the existing safety measures are vastly inferior to the task. It is a common belief on the Bay of Naples that Vesuvius is extinct(!) and such stupidity and ignorance will undoubtedly kill thousands (possibly hundreds of thousands) when next the mountain erupts. People have started building on the slopes of the mountain, which is illegal but these are wealthy men so a few bribes thrown the right way and you get post facto permission. There are some 600,000 people living in the Red Zone of imminent peril. The Yellow Zone includes an extra 1.1 million. And this isn’t even including Naples, which could be in danger if the eruption is on the scale of the 1631 or 79 one, as it is fully expected to be. But the complexities of planning sounds astounding. If evacuating 600,000 people in a week or less is impossible, evacuating 1.7 million is even more so. And they would have, at best, two weeks to do it in. And if they evacuate people too soon the populace will get furious about their untouched houses and demand to be let back in because scientists are stupid and don’t know what they’re doing. This was about to happen with Mount St. Helens on the day of the eruption. And frankly, I have more faith in the American government’s organizational capacities than I do in Italy’s. Some of their local towns have already started refusing to participate in future evacuation drills because they don’t see the point. And even if they do get all the people out, as soon as these towns and cities have been evacuated they will be scourged clean by looters. How to handle that? Current plans call for a heavy police presence inside the death zone! Killing thousands of cops who will be needed to keep public order as people start panicking in the evacuation zones seems foolhardy to the extreme, yet what are the alternatives? The nightmare scenario is inevitable and nobody has any real way to deal with it. There is a lot to this book that belies its relatively short length (310 pages plus bibliography). It does several things very well. It provides a good summary of the eruptive history of Vesuvius. It serves as a good beginner’s guide to stratovolcanic activity. It details the responses to volcanic eruptions under different rulers. It provides us with sketches of the appearance of Vesuvius in different eras. It provides us with an account of the formation of volcanology as a discipline. It gives us a selective history of the Bay of Naples. And it is full of extracts from first-hand accounts and descriptions of human behavior in times of crisis. It is well worth reading for any one of those components.

  2. 5 out of 5

    Arvind Balasundaram

    This volume is an essential read for volcano-lovers, particularly those who also find Vesuvius and the Bay of Naples an irresistible place to visit. Scarth succeeds brilliantly in marrying the history, geology, devastation, and fascination with what is easily the most famous volcano in the world. Beginning with the Great Eruption of 79 A.D. which devastated Pompeii and Herculaneum (present day Ercalano/ Resina), this book leads the reader through all the major eruptions since. Whether there were This volume is an essential read for volcano-lovers, particularly those who also find Vesuvius and the Bay of Naples an irresistible place to visit. Scarth succeeds brilliantly in marrying the history, geology, devastation, and fascination with what is easily the most famous volcano in the world. Beginning with the Great Eruption of 79 A.D. which devastated Pompeii and Herculaneum (present day Ercalano/ Resina), this book leads the reader through all the major eruptions since. Whether there were major pyroclastic flows or lava impact from rainstorms, or ash and gas impacts associated with directional wind flow, Scarth narrates the terrifying experience of those living in the adjacent towns and the city of Naples. Accompanied by simple to follow diagrams, the book is a splendid historical biography of the volcano and events/personalities associated with the Somma-Vesuvius caldera. From the bravery of Pliny the Elder trying to save victims that led to his own death to the career of Sir William Hamilton, or the aura surrounding the Neapolitan saint San Gennaro and the dedication of the vulcanologists in the Vesuvius Observatory through major eruptions are all documented here. This book is an entertaining read and a monumental testament to man versus volcano right up to the present day.

  3. 4 out of 5

    Lisa

    This book, a social, historical, and scientific history of the volcano Vesuvius, is both delightful and deeply alarming. Its delight comes from Scarth's clear, engaging style; he uses both scientific data and excerpts from historical documents, and peppers the text with anecdotes about people who have suffered with and researched the volcano over time. The alarm is sounded by the final chapter, which discusses prospects for a possibly cataclysmic eruption in the densely populated, anarchic Neapo This book, a social, historical, and scientific history of the volcano Vesuvius, is both delightful and deeply alarming. Its delight comes from Scarth's clear, engaging style; he uses both scientific data and excerpts from historical documents, and peppers the text with anecdotes about people who have suffered with and researched the volcano over time. The alarm is sounded by the final chapter, which discusses prospects for a possibly cataclysmic eruption in the densely populated, anarchic Neapolitan region. I found that section particularly interesting in that it makes one think about how people react to uncertainty around impending environmental catastrophe, something that is important in light of climate change planning.

  4. 4 out of 5

    Antonio Gallo

    Biografia di un vulcano. Si può scrivere la biografia di un vulcano? Di un vulcano come il Vesuvio? Sembra di sì. L'ha scritta uno studioso ed esperto di origine inglese, già accademico dell'università di Dundee. Ovviamente il nostro Vesuvio è un vulcano che non ha bisogno di essere conosciuto nè tanto meno biografato. Nel corso di questi ultimi due millenni non si contano gli studi e gli studiosi che si sono sono occupati di lui. Così come non si contano i risvegli improvvisi e catastrofici che Biografia di un vulcano. Si può scrivere la biografia di un vulcano? Di un vulcano come il Vesuvio? Sembra di sì. L'ha scritta uno studioso ed esperto di origine inglese, già accademico dell'università di Dundee. Ovviamente il nostro Vesuvio è un vulcano che non ha bisogno di essere conosciuto nè tanto meno biografato. Nel corso di questi ultimi due millenni non si contano gli studi e gli studiosi che si sono sono occupati di lui. Così come non si contano i risvegli improvvisi e catastrofici che lo stesso "Vesevo" ha avuto. Questo blogger vive a relativamente poca distanza da esso. Una ventina di km in linea d’aria, non tanti comunque da sentirsi al sicuro. I monti tutt’intorno, infatti, sono ricoperti da antichi residui vulcanici portati dalle correnti durante le varie eruzioni. Ogni mattina, quando mi sveglio, la prima cosa che faccio è dare uno sguardo a quella montagna che si staglia in lontananza. Anzi, le sagome delle montagne sono due, una di fianco all’altra: Monte Somma e il Vesuvio, così come si vedono dalle sue spalle, dalla Valle del fiume Sarno. Un’area geografica molto estesa della Campania, a metà strada tra Napoli e Salerno, i cui comuni ricadono tutti nella provincia di Salerno, per una superficie complessiva di 158.1 Kmq e oltre 285mila abitanti, con una densità di popolazione pari a 1807 abitanti per Kmq. L’area è geograficamente racchiusa a nord-est dai monti Picentini, che la separano dalla provincia di Avellino; a nord-ovest confina, invece, con l’agro nolano (provincia di Napoli) e a ovest con la piana del Vesuvio (sempre provincia di Napoli). A sud ne è confine la barriera naturale dei monti Lattari. Fanno parte dell’agro nocerino sarnese i comuni di Scafati, Sarno, Siano, San Valentino Torio, San Marzano sul Sarno, Sant’Egidio del Monte Albino, Roccapiemonte, Pagani, Nocera Inferiore, Nocera Superiore, Corbara, Castel San Giorgio ed Angri. Poco meno di mezzo milione di persone vivono in questa area che è una delle più densamente popolate d’Europa. La Valle è a destra, come si può vedere dalla immagine che correda questo post. Dall’altra parte si stende l’area napoletana. Al centro di questo antico e straordinario territorio, il Vesuvio si erge con il suo cratere a forma di occhio sempre aperto. Alwyn Scarth ha scritto questa biografia che risulta essere un vero e proprio libro di testo per la sua ricca cronologia degli eventi eruttivi tutti ricavati da resoconti storici. La sua ricerca è in gran parte dedicata all’eruzione del 1631 che ebbe luogo dopo un periodo di “sonno” piuttosto lungo del vulcano. A metà dicembre di quella fine d’anno tutto ebbe inizio con una serie di lave piroclastiche, come fu anche il caso con Pompei. Reazioni vulcaniche quanto mai pericolose con eruzioni spettacolari di gas bollenti, nubi tossiche e getti altissimi in sospensione portati dai venti a grande distanza, a seconda della direzione dei venti. Cenere, lapilli, sabbia in superficie viaggianti per tutta la valle, mentre a livello del terreno fiumi di lava avanzavano distruggendo ogni cosa lungo il percorso. Questa eruzione, secondo l’autore, sembra quasi fare da scenario e da sfondo a quello che fu il movimento della Controriforma. Gli abitanti dei luoghi, in special modo i Napoletani, nel tentativo di salvarsi e di esorcizzare gli effetti letali delle eruzioni, si diedero a pratiche rituali religiose contro il cataclisma che li colpiva a causa dei loro peccati. Le reliquie di tutti i santi, ed in particolare quelle di San Gennaro, protettore della città, vennero portate dappertutto nella speranza di placare l’ira vulcanica. Migliaia di penitenti scalzi seguivano le reliquie e tutti trovarono il modo di pentirsi dei peccati alla luce della punizione divina. Ben poco si fece per salvare ed aiutare le vittime o i superstiti. Migliaia furono i morti oltre alla devastazione dei beni e del bestiame. A distanza di poco più di un secolo, nel 1760, il Vesuvio si risveglia, e fu ancora una volta un inglese ad occuparsene con grande scrupolosa attenzione. E’ il rappresentante di sua Maestà Britannica alla corte di Napoli Sir William Hamilton il quale, dalla sua villa a Portici, proprio ai piedi del Vulcano, ha la possibilità di osservare il mostro. Lo scala numerose volte e lo studia per circa quaranta anni. Scrive accurati rapporti alla Royal Society di Londra, fa da cicerone ai suoi visitatori, fa conoscere al mondo il fascino di quel misterioso vulcano che conquista le menti romantiche di scrittori e poeti di mezza Europa. Famosa la sua descrizione che porta la data ottobre 1767. Nel diciannovesimo secolo l’approccio al vulcano cambia con l’introduzione delle scienze della terra. Alexander von Humboldt e Charles Lyell sono soltanto due dei nomi che contano negli studi del settore. A metà del secolo si crea un Osservatorio appositamente istituito per lo studio del Vesuvio con strumenti di alta precisione in grado di avvertire la bensì minima scossa proveniente dal ventre profondo di Vesevo. A distanza di 150 anni dalla sua fondazione, scrive Scarth, ci si aspetterebbe che al minimo avvertimento dato dalle sofisticate strumentazioni di questo moderno Osservatorio facesse seguito anche una sicura e sollecita evacuazione della popolazione eventualmente interessata ai pericoli dell’eruzione. Ahimè non è così. In soltanto un paio di settimane di possibile preavviso di una imminente eruzione, niente di concreto e di sicuro è stato previsto in termini di evacuazione e sicurezza. Il vulcano dorme dal 1944 e se si sveglierà, con una potenza simile a quella del 1631, non si sa esattamente cosa accadrà. La domanda più ricorrente è: quando? Nessun scienziato e nessuna strumentazione può dirlo. E per questa ragione la gente, i milioni di persone che hanno deciso di continuare a vivere e lavorare tutto intorno al vulcano sono persone che da un punto di vista antropologico sono davvero speciali. Il libro di Scarth oltre ad essere un ottimo documento storico e scientifico è anche uno studio importante sulla realtà di una regione, quell’antica Campania, ricca e fertile popolata da genti e popoli speciali. Genti e popoli sui quali in un certo qual modo l’iperattivismo del vulcano ha influito decisamente sui loro destini. Questa regione, con quella straordinaria città che è Napoli, da oltre tremila anni, vive in maniera “vulcanica” la sua esistenza terrena avendo assorbito tutto il furore, la passione, il calore, l’irruenza e l’incongruenza, il furore e la passione, la violenza e la libertà delle qualità antropomorfiche del vulcano stesso. Il Vesuvio è stato come un cortigiano pericoloso, capriccioso e viziato il quale durante le eruzioni e le distruzioni ha mandato all’altro mondo migliaia e migliaia di persone senza un perchè, una ragione o spiegazione. Ha seminato morte e distruzione ma ha anche permesso la formazione di una terra quanto mai ricca, fertile, nobile, sia nella natura che nello spirito degli uomini e delle cose. La “Campania Felix” ha visto alternarsi “età dell’oro” e periodi di grande decadenza e confusione. Non ultimo, ad esempio, la grande crisi di una città ed un territorio prigioniero della sua stessa “spazzatura”. Scorie umane e morali di un tessuto sociale in continuo conflitto con se stesso e con il mondo. Questo libro costituisce un’ottima fotografia della nostra realtà politica, morale, sociale, storica e geografica vista con gli occhi e la mente di uno straniero.

  5. 4 out of 5

    Maxine

    I liked the amount of digestible information contained in this book. I enjoyed the charts and illustrations. I would use this book as a resource and would also recommend it as such. The one downside was that sometimes it seemed like the editing wasn't as good as it could have been, or that maybe errors in translations had happened (but I think the book was originally an English language publication so...).

  6. 4 out of 5

    Rick Jones

    A pretty readable comprehensive 'biography' of Somme Vesuvius' history, with occasional nods to the humans who live with the mountain. It is comprehensive, both a strength and a weakness. The author's maps were useful, except that he didn't alter the maps to show which towns were being imperiled. Pompeii is there on the map, everytime, even though it was annihilated in 79AD. Also, the author redrew famous artistic renderings of various eruptions,...why not show the originals?

  7. 5 out of 5

    Xandra Nelsen

    Coming from someone who usually doesn't touch non-fiction with a ten-foot stick, I really enjoyed this! It was easy to understand and well-organized.

  8. 4 out of 5

    Carrie

    I LOVED this book. It presented just the facts about Vesuvius but managed to not be boring. If you are at all interested in the tragedy at Pompeii this book gives you a great history about the volcano and it's eruptions.

  9. 5 out of 5

    Dawn

  10. 5 out of 5

    John Hawk

  11. 4 out of 5

    Kara

  12. 5 out of 5

    Marv

  13. 4 out of 5

    Tim Robinson

  14. 5 out of 5

    Stebbins

  15. 4 out of 5

    R.A.

  16. 5 out of 5

    Sarah

  17. 4 out of 5

    Mark

  18. 4 out of 5

    Christine

  19. 5 out of 5

    Bess Camarata

  20. 4 out of 5

    William Rodriguez

  21. 4 out of 5

    Louisa

  22. 4 out of 5

    Linda

  23. 4 out of 5

    Brittany Kay

  24. 5 out of 5

    Erica

  25. 5 out of 5

    Rebecca Bellucci

  26. 4 out of 5

    Christina

  27. 4 out of 5

    terry

  28. 5 out of 5

    Lisa

  29. 4 out of 5

    Christie Gilson-Graves

  30. 4 out of 5

    Ann

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